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如何检测Linux Guest VM使用的哪种虚拟化技术

如何检测Linux Guest VM使用的哪种虚拟化技术

写在前面的话

如果我有一台基于云的虚拟机,并且运行了Ubuntu或CentOS的Linux服务器系统,而这些设备可能是虚拟化的,也可能不是虚拟化的,那我们应该如何去判断这台Linux Guest系统设备使用的是哪种虚拟化技术(VMWARE/ KVM/ XEN/ VirtualBox/ Container/lxc/Hyper-V等等)呢?那我们如何才能识别一台CentOS 7 Linux VPS所使用的虚拟化技术类型呢?

技术分析

我们需要使用virt-what程序(一个Shell脚本)来检测目标设备系统所使用的虚拟化技术类型,它可以打印出每一条关于目标设备虚拟化技术的相关信息。在这篇文章中,我们将介绍如何去判断Linux Guest VM虚拟化技术类型。

判断Linux Guest VM虚拟化技术类型

正如我们刚才说的,我们需要使用virt-what Linux命令来判断一个程序当前是否在一台虚拟机设备上运行。该脚本支持各种虚拟机管理程序,接下来,我们看看如何在不同的Linux发行版系统中安装virt-what。

Debian或Ubuntu Linux安装

首先,运行下列apt命令/apt-get命令:

$ sudo apt-get install virt-what

或者

$ sudo apt install virt-what

如何检测Linux Guest VM使用的哪种虚拟化技术

在RHEL/CentOS/Scientific Linux VM中安装virt-what

我们可以使用yum命令完成安装:

$ sudo yum install virt-what

如何检测Linux Guest VM使用的哪种虚拟化技术

Fedora Linux VM安装virt-what来检测当前环境是否为虚拟机环境

执行dnf命令:

$ sudo dnf install virt-what

Suse/OpenSUSE安装

运行zypper命令:

sudo zypper in virt-what

如何检测Linux Guest VM使用的哪种虚拟化技术

判断远程服务器是否为虚拟机环境

我们可以直接输入并运行下列命令:

$ $ sudo virt-what

xen

xen-domU

输出结果:

$ $ sudo virt-what

kvm

其他输出结果:

$ $ sudo virt-what

lxc

下面给出的是AWS返回的结果:

$ sudo virt-what

xen

xen-hvm

aws

如何检测Linux Guest VM使用的哪种虚拟化技术

其他可能的值

1、hyperv : 这是微软的Hyper-V管理程序;

2、parallels : 访客用户正在Parallels虚拟平台(Parallels Desktop、Parallels Server)中运行;

3、powervm_lx86 : 访客用户正在IBM powervm lx86 Linux/x86模拟器中运行;

4、qemu : 这是使用软件模拟技术的QEMU管理程序;

5、virtualpc : 访客用户正在微软VirualPC上运行;

6、xen-hvm : 这是一个Xen Guest完全虚拟化平台(HVM);

7、uml : 这是一个用户模式Linux(UML)客户机;

8、openvz : 访客用户正在OpenVZ或Virtuozzo容器中运行;

9、linux_vserver : 此进程正在Linux VServer容器中运行;

10、ibm_systemz : 这是一个IBM SystemZ硬件分区系统;

如果没有任何输出结果,那意味着我们的程序可能是在裸机上运行的,或者程序是在一种我们无法检测到的虚拟机系统中运行的。

检测脚本源代码

下面给出的是脚本的源代码:

#!/bin/sh -

# virt-what.  Generated from virt-what.in by configure.

# Copyright (C) 2008-2017 Red Hat Inc.

#

# This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify

# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by

# the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or

# (at your option) any later version.

#

# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,

# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of

# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the

# GNU General Public License for more details.

#

# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License

# along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software

# Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

# 'virt-what' tries to detect the type of virtualization being

# used (or none at all if we're running on bare-metal).  It prints

# out one or more lines each being a 'fact' about the virtualization.

#

# Please see also the manual page virt-what(1).

# This script should be run as root.

#

# The following resources were useful in writing this script:

# . http://dmo.ca/blog/detecting-virtualization-on-linux/

# Do not allow unset variables, and set defaults.

set -u

root=''

skip_qemu_kvm=false

skip_lkvm=false

VERSION="1.20"

have_cpuinfo () {

    test -e "${root}/proc/cpuinfo"

}

use_sysctl() {

    # Lacking /proc, on some systems sysctl can be used instead.

    OS=$(uname) || fail "failed to get operating system name"

    [ "$OS" = "OpenBSD" ]

}

fail () {

    echo "virt-what: $1" >&2

    exit 1

}

usage () {

    echo "virt-what [options]"

    echo "Options:"

    echo "  --help          Display this help"

    echo "  --version       Display version and exit"

    exit 0

}

# Handle the command line arguments, if any.

while test $# -gt 0; do

    case "$1" in

        --help) usage ;;

        --test-root=*)

            # Deliberately undocumented: used for 'make check'.

            root=$(echo "$1" | sed 's/.*=//')

            shift 1

            test -z "$root" && fail "--test-root option requires a value"

            ;;

        -v|--version) echo "$VERSION"; exit 0 ;;

        --) shift; break ;;

        *) fail "unrecognized option '$1'";;

    esac

done

test $# -gt 0 && fail "extra operand '$1'"

# Add /sbin and /usr/sbin to the path so we can find system

# binaries like dmidecode.

# Add /usr/libexec to the path so we can find the helper binary.

prefix=/usr/local

exec_prefix=${prefix}

PATH="${root}${exec_prefix}/libexec:${root}/sbin:${root}/usr/sbin:${PATH}"

export PATH

# Check we're running as root.

EFFUID=$(id -u) || fail "failed to get current user id"

if [ "x$root" = "x" ] && [ "$EFFUID" -ne 0 ]; then

    fail "this script must be run as root"

fi

# Try to locate the CPU-ID helper program

CPUID_HELPER=$(which virt-what-cpuid-helper 2>/dev/null)

if [ -z "$CPUID_HELPER" ] ; then

    fail "virt-what-cpuid-helper program not found in \$PATH"

fi

# Many fullvirt hypervisors give an indication through CPUID.  Use the

# helper program to get this information.

cpuid=$(virt-what-cpuid-helper)

# Check for various products in the BIOS information.

# Note that dmidecode doesn't exist on all architectures.  On the ones

# it does not, then this will return an error, which is ignored (error

# message redirected into the $dmi variable).

dmi=$(LANG=C dmidecode 2>&1)

# Architecture.

# Note for the purpose of testing, we only call uname with -m option.

arch=$(uname -m | sed -e 's/i.86/i386/' | sed -e 's/arm.*/arm/')

# Check for VMware.

# cpuid check added by Chetan Loke.

if [ "$cpuid" = "VMwareVMware" ]; then

    echo vmware

elif echo "$dmi" | grep -q 'Manufacturer: VMware'; then

    echo vmware

fi

# Check for Hyper-V.

http://blogs.msdn.com/b/sqlosteam/archive/2010/10/30/is-this-real-the-metaphysics-of-hardware-virtualization.aspx

if [ "$cpuid" = "Microsoft Hv" ]; then

    echo hyperv

fi

# Check for VirtualPC.

# The negative check for cpuid is to distinguish this from Hyper-V

# which also has the same manufacturer string in the SM-BIOS data.

if [ "$cpuid" != "Microsoft Hv" ] &&

    echo "$dmi" | grep -q 'Manufacturer: Microsoft Corporation'; then

    echo virtualpc

fi

# Check for VirtualBox.

# Added by Laurent Léonard.

if echo "$dmi" | grep -q 'Manufacturer: innotek GmbH'; then

    echo virtualbox

fi

# Check for bhyve.

if [ "$cpuid" = "bhyve bhyve " ]; then

  echo bhyve

elif echo "$dmi" | grep -q "Vendor: BHYVE"; then

  echo bhyve

fi

# Check for OpenVZ / Virtuozzo.

# Added by Evgeniy Sokolov.

# /proc/vz - always exists if OpenVZ kernel is running (inside and outside

# container)

# /proc/bc - exists on node, but not inside container.

if [ -d "${root}/proc/vz" -a ! -d "${root}/proc/bc" ]; then

    echo openvz

fi

# Check for LXC containers

http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/ContainerInterface

# Added by Marc Fournier

if [ -e "${root}/proc/1/environ" ] &&

    cat "${root}/proc/1/environ" | tr '\000' '\n' | grep -Eiq '^container='; then

    echo lxc

fi

# Check for Linux-VServer

if test -e "${root}/proc/self/status" \

   && cat "${root}/proc/self/status" | grep -q "VxID: [0-9]*"; then

    echo linux_vserver

    if grep -q "VxID: 0$" "${root}/proc/self/status"; then

        echo linux_vserver-host

    else

        echo linux_vserver-guest

    fi

fi

# Check for UML.

# Added by Laurent Léonard.

if have_cpuinfo && grep -q 'UML' "${root}/proc/cpuinfo"; then

    echo uml

fi

# Check for IBM PowerVM Lx86 Linux/x86 emulator.

if have_cpuinfo && grep -q '^vendor_id.*PowerVM Lx86' "${root}/proc/cpuinfo"

then

    echo powervm_lx86

fi

# Check for Hitachi Virtualization Manager (HVM) Virtage logical partitioning.

if echo "$dmi" | grep -q 'Manufacturer.*HITACHI' &&

   echo "$dmi" | grep -q 'Product.* LPAR'; then

    echo virtage

fi

# Check for IBM SystemZ.

if have_cpuinfo && grep -q '^vendor_id.*IBM/S390' "${root}/proc/cpuinfo"; then

    echo ibm_systemz

    if [ -f "${root}/proc/sysinfo" ]; then

        if grep -q 'VM.*Control Program.*KVM/Linux' "${root}/proc/sysinfo"; then

            echo ibm_systemz-kvm

        elif grep -q 'VM.*Control Program.*z/VM' "${root}/proc/sysinfo"; then

            echo ibm_systemz-zvm

        elif grep -q '^LPAR' "${root}/proc/sysinfo"; then

            echo ibm_systemz-lpar

        else

            # This is unlikely to be correct.

            echo ibm_systemz-direct

        fi

    fi

fi

# Check for Parallels.

if echo "$dmi" | grep -q 'Vendor: Parallels'; then

    echo parallels

    skip_qemu_kvm=true

fi

# Check for oVirt/RHEV.

if echo "$dmi" | grep -q 'Manufacturer: oVirt'; then

    echo ovirt

fi

if echo "$dmi" | grep -q 'Product Name: RHEV Hypervisor'; then

    echo rhev

fi

# Check for Xen.

if [ "$cpuid" = "XenVMMXenVMM" ] &&

    ! echo "$dmi" | grep -q 'No SMBIOS nor DMI entry point found, sorry'; then

    echo xen; echo xen-hvm

    skip_qemu_kvm=true

elif [ -d "${root}/proc/xen" ]; then

    echo xen

    if grep -q "control_d" "${root}/proc/xen/capabilities" 2>/dev/null; then

        echo xen-dom0

    else

        echo xen-domU

    fi

    skip_qemu_kvm=true

    skip_lkvm=true

elif [ -f "${root}/sys/hypervisor/type" ] &&

    grep -q "xen" "${root}/sys/hypervisor/type"; then

    # Ordinary kernel with pv_ops.  There does not seem to be

    # enough information at present to tell whether this is dom0

    # or domU.  XXX

    echo xen

elif [ "$arch" = "arm" ] || [ "$arch" = "aarch64" ]; then

    if [ -d "${root}/proc/device-tree/hypervisor" ] &&

        grep -q "xen" "${root}/proc/device-tree/hypervisor/compatible"; then

        echo xen

        skip_qemu_kvm=true

        skip_lkvm=true

    fi

elif [ "$arch" = "ia64" ]; then

    if [ -d "${root}/sys/bus/xen" -a ! -d "${root}/sys/bus/xen-backend" ]; then

        # PV-on-HVM drivers installed in a Xen guest.

        echo xen

        echo xen-hvm

    else

        # There is no virt leaf on IA64 HVM.  This is a last-ditch

        # attempt to detect something is virtualized by using a

        # timing attack.

        virt-what-ia64-xen-rdtsc-test > /dev/null 2>&1

        case "$?" in

            0) ;; # not virtual

            1) # Could be some sort of virt, or could just be a bit slow.

                echo virt

        esac

    fi

fi

# Check for QEMU/KVM.

#

# Parallels exports KVMKVMKVM leaf, so skip this test if we've already

# seen that it's Parallels.  Xen uses QEMU as the device model, so

# skip this test if we know it is Xen.

if ! "$skip_qemu_kvm"; then

    if [ "$cpuid" = "KVMKVMKVM" ]; then

        echo kvm

    elif [ "$cpuid" = "TCGTCGTCGTCG" ]; then

        echo qemu

        skip_lkvm=true

    elif echo "$dmi" | grep -q 'Product Name: KVM'; then

        echo kvm

        skip_lkvm=true

    elif echo "$dmi" | grep -q 'Manufacturer: QEMU'; then

        # The test for KVM above failed, so now we know we're

        # not using KVM acceleration.

        echo qemu

        skip_lkvm=true

    elif [ "$arch" = "arm" ] || [ "$arch" = "aarch64" ]; then

        if [ -d "${root}/proc/device-tree" ] &&

            ls "${root}/proc/device-tree" | grep -q "fw-cfg"; then

            # We don't have enough information to determine if we're

            # using KVM acceleration or not.

            echo qemu

            skip_lkvm=true

        fi

    elif [ -d ${root}/proc/device-tree/hypervisor ] &&

         grep -q "linux,kvm" /proc/device-tree/hypervisor/compatible; then

        # We are running as a spapr KVM guest on ppc64

        echo kvm

        skip_lkvm=true

    elif use_sysctl; then

        # SmartOS KVM

        product=$(sysctl -n hw.product)

        if echo "$product" | grep -q 'SmartDC HVM'; then

            echo kvm

        fi

    else

        # This is known to fail for qemu with the explicit -cpu

        # option, since /proc/cpuinfo will not contain the QEMU

        # string. QEMU 2.10 added a new CPUID leaf, so this

        # problem only triggered for older QEMU

        if have_cpuinfo && grep -q 'QEMU' "${root}/proc/cpuinfo"; then

            echo qemu

        fi

    fi

fi

if ! "$skip_lkvm"; then

    if [ "$cpuid" = "LKVMLKVMLKVM" ]; then

        echo lkvm

    elif [ "$arch" = "arm" ] || [ "$arch" = "aarch64" ]; then

        if [ -d "${root}/proc/device-tree" ] &&

            grep -q "dummy-virt" "${root}/proc/device-tree/compatible"; then

            echo lkvm

        fi

    fi

fi

# Check for Docker.

if [ -f "${root}/.dockerinit" ]; then

    echo docker

fi

# Check ppc64 lpar, kvm or powerkvm

# example /proc/cpuinfo line indicating 'not baremetal'

# platform  : pSeries

#

# example /proc/ppc64/lparcfg systemtype line

# system_type=IBM pSeries (emulated by qemu)

if [ "$arch" = "ppc64" ] || [ "$arch" = "ppc64le" ] ; then

    if have_cpuinfo && grep -q 'platform.**pSeries' "${root}/proc/cpuinfo"; then

        if grep -q 'model.*emulated by qemu' "${root}/proc/cpuinfo"; then

                echo ibm_power-kvm

        else

            # Assume LPAR, now detect shared or dedicated

            if grep -q 'shared_processor_mode=1' "${root}/proc/ppc64/lparcfg"; then

                echo ibm_power-lpar_shared

            else

                echo ibm_power-lpar_dedicated

            fi

        # detect powerkvm?

        fi

    fi

fi

# Check for OpenBSD/VMM

if [ "$cpuid" = "OpenBSDVMM58" ]; then

        echo vmm

fi

# Check for LDoms

if [ "${arch#sparc}" != "$arch" ] && [ -e "${root}/dev/mdesc" ]; then

    echo ldoms

    if [ -d "${root}/sys/class/vlds/ctrl" ] && \

             [ -d "${root}/sys/class/vlds/sp" ]; then

        echo ldoms-control

    else

        echo ldoms-guest

    fi

    MDPROP="${root}/usr/lib/ldoms/mdprop.py"

    if [ -x "${MDPROP}" ]; then

        if [ -n "$($MDPROP -v iodevice device-type=pciex)" ]; then

            echo ldoms-root

            echo ldoms-io

        elif [ -n "$($MDPROP -v iov-device vf-id=0)" ]; then

            echo ldoms-io

        fi

    fi

fi

# Check for AWS.

# AWS on Xen.

if echo "$dmi" | grep -q 'Version: [0-9]\.[0-9]\.amazon'; then

    echo aws

# AWS on baremetal or KVM.

elif echo "$dmi" | grep -q 'Vendor: Amazon EC2'; then

    echo aws

fi

如何使用dmidecode命令来寻找相同的信息

配合Bash for循环并使用dmidecode命令判断目标虚拟化技术:

for i in system-manufacturer system-product-name

do 

  sudo dmidecode -s $i

done

样本输出:

Red Hat

KVM

其他用来判断虚拟化技术的命令

我们还可以使用systemd-detect-virt命令来检测虚拟化环境:

systemd-detect-virt

如何检测Linux Guest VM使用的哪种虚拟化技术

资源获取

1、virt-what:【点我获取

2、Bash for循环:【参考文档

3、yum命令:【参考文档

4、apt命令:【参考文档

5、apt-get命令:【参考文档

* 参考来源:cyberciti,FB小编Alpha_h4ck编译,转载请注明来自FreeBuf.COM

本文转为转载文章,本文观点不代表威客安全立场。

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